On golden banners
Beowulf. Seamus Heaney, trans. Norton & Co.: NY. 2000.
Describing a king's funeral ship:
They decked his body no less bountifully
with offerings than those first ones did
who cast him away when he was a child
and launched him alone out over the waves
And they set a gold standard up (Tha gyt hi him asetton segend gyldenne
high above his head and let him drift (heah ofer heafod
to wind and tide
--- Lines 43-49
Descibing Hrothgar's gifts to Beowulf:
Then Halfdane's son presented Beowulf
with a gold standard as a victory gift (segen gyldenne sigores to leane
an embroidered banner; also breast mail (hroden hilde-cumbor
and a helmet...
--- Lines 1019 - 1022
Wiglaf inspects the dragon's hoard:
And he saw too a standard, entirely of gold (Swylce he siomian geseah segn eall-gylden
Hanging high over the hoard (heah ofer horde, hond-wundra maest,
a masterpiece of filigree; it glowed with light (gelocen leotho-craeftum
so he could make out the ground at his feet
and inspect the valuables
--- Lines 2767-2771
Beowulf: A New Translation for Oral Delivery. Dick Ringler, trans. UW-Madison TEI Edition, posted May 2005. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/Literature.RinglBeowulf
The same three passages:
Finally the Danes affixed a golden standard above him
...and a banner of gold to mark his triumph...
God Wiglaf saw a great standard blazing in the gloom above the ring-hoard, its gold streamers gleaming brilliantly
Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem. Lesslie Hall, trans. D.C. Heath & Co.: Boston. 1892. Accessed via Project Gutenberg at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16328/16328-h/16328-h.htm
And a gold-fashion standard they stretched under heaven, high o'er his head
A golden standard, as reward for the victory, A banner embossed
And there he saw lying an all-golden banner, high o'er the hoard, of hand-wonders greatest, linked with lacets: a light from it sparkled
On gold embroidery
Jill Ivy. Embroideries at Durham Cathedral. Robert Attey and Sons: Sunderland, Great Britian. 1992.
To be continued...